Census: Age and sex
According to data from the 2011 Census of
Population, seniors accounted for 14.8% of the
population in 2011, up from 13.7% in 2006. However,
the proportion of seniors in Canada remained among
the lowest of the G8 countries. A full analysis is
available in the report,
The Canadian Population in 2011: Age and Sex.
In 2011, Canada's lower share of seniors compared
with other G8 countries was related to the fact that
most of its baby boomers were still part of the
working-age population (aged 15 to 64). The
baby-boom generation consists of people born between
1946 and 1965 and is the country's largest
As a result, the share of the working-age population
in Canada, at 68.5% in 2011, was among the highest
of the G8 countries.
The share of children aged 14 and under fell from
17.7% in 2006 to 16.7% in 2011.
As the baby boomers turn 65 in coming years,
population aging will accelerate and the share of
the working-age population will decrease. The census
counted 9.6 million baby boomers, nearly 3 in every
10 people. Additional analysis on the baby-boom
generation as well as other generations can be found
in the Census in Brief article, "Generations
Population of seniors
catching up with that of children
The number of seniors aged 65 and over increased
14.1% between 2006 and 2011. This rate of growth was
more than double the 5.9% increase for the Canadian
population as a whole. It was also higher than the
rate of growth of children aged 14 and under (+0.5%)
and people aged 15 to 64 (+5.7%).
As a result, the number of seniors has continued to
converge with the number of children in Canada
between 2006 and 2011. The census counted 5,607,345
children aged 14 and under, compared with 4,945,060
seniors. In the working-age population, the census
counted 22,924,300 people.
The main factors behind the aging of Canada's
population are the nation's below-replacement-level
fertility rate over the last 40 years and an
increasing life expectancy.
Canada's working-age population is also growing
older. Within the working-age group, 42.4% of people
were aged between 45 and 64, a record high
proportion. This was well above the proportion of
28.6% in 1991, when the first baby boomers reached
In 2011, nearly all people aged between 45 and 64
were baby boomers.
For the first time, census data showed that there
were more people in the age group 55 to 64, where
people typically are about to leave the labour
force, than in the age group 15 to 24, where people
typically are about to enter it.
The 2011 Census counted 4,393,305 people aged 55 to
64. In contrast, there were 4,365,585 people aged 15
In 2001, for every person aged 55 to 64, there were
1.40 people in the age group 15 to 24. By 2011, this
ratio had fallen slightly below 1 (0.99) for the
first time. This means that for each person leaving
the working-age group in 2011, there was about one
person entering it.
Highest increase in number
of young children since the end of the baby boom
The population of children aged 4 and under
increased 11.0% between 2006 and 2011. This was the
highest growth rate for this age group since the
1956 to 1961 period, during the baby boom. It was
also the highest growth rate of all age groups below
age 50 between 2006 and 2011.
Centenarians represent one
of the fastest-growing age groups
The 2011 Census counted 5,825 people aged 100 years
and older, up from 4,635 in 2006 and 3,795 in 2001.
Between 2006 and 2011, the number of centenarians
increased 25.7%, the second-highest growth rate of
all age groups, after the age group 60 to 64
(+29.1%). Additional analysis on centenarians can be
found in the Census in Brief article, "Centenarians
Provinces and territories:
Population of seniors
Between 2006 and 2011, the proportion of seniors
increased in every province and territory except
Saskatchewan. The increase was especially strong in
the four Atlantic provinces, where seniors
represented more than 16% of the population (above
the national average of 14.8%) and in Quebec, where
seniors represented 15.9% of the population.
Among the provinces, Alberta (11.1%) had the lowest
proportion of seniors. Proportions in the three
territories were much lower than the national
average. Provincial and territorial differences in
the age structure are the result of differences in
fertility and immigration, as well as in
Provinces and territories: Working-age population
In 2011, the share of the working-age population was
higher than the national average in three provinces
(Alberta, British Columbia and Newfoundland and
Labrador) and in two territories (Yukon and the
The working-age group represented 70.1% of Alberta's
total population, the highest among the provinces.
This situation was mostly the result of the net
inflow of working-age people into Alberta from other
parts of the country over the years.
Provinces and territories: Children aged 4 and
For the first time in 50 years, the number of
children aged 4 and under increased in all provinces
and territories between 2006 and 2011.
The largest increases occurred in Alberta (+20.9%),
Saskatchewan (+19.6%), Quebec (+17.5%), Nunavut
(+15.7%) and Yukon (+13.8%).
The main factors explaining the growth are increases
in the number of women aged 20 to 34 in most
provinces and territories, and increases in
fertility levels in all provinces and territories.
Census metropolitan areas: Younger populations in
In 2011, all census metropolitan areas (CMAs)
located west of Ontario had a proportion of people
aged 65 and over below the national average of
14.8%, except for Kelowna (19.2%) and Victoria
(18.4%), both in British Columbia. In Calgary, the
share was 9.8%, the lowest of all CMAs.
In comparison, nearly 1 in 5 people were aged 65 or
over in Peterborough (19.5%) and Trois-Rivières
(19.4%), the highest of all CMAs.
Additional analysis and maps at the census tract
level for the CMAs can be found in the Census in
Brief article, "The
census: A tool for planning at the local level."
Most municipalities with highest proportion of
seniors in British Columbia
In 2011, 7 of the 10 municipalities (census
subdivisions) with the highest proportion of seniors
were in British Columbia.
Seniors accounted for
nearly 1 out of every 2 people (47.2%) in the
population of Qualicum Beach, located in the census
agglomeration of Parksville, British Columbia.
becoming a "Warrior Nation," new book proclaims
Award-winning historian and acclaimed journalist
shed light on campaign to change Canada.
Toronto, May 29, 2012 /CNW/
- Adding a bold voice to recent debate
over the role, cost, and reach of Canada's military,
the new book Warrior
Nation: Rebranding Canada in an Age of Anxiety
(Between the Lines Books), by Ian McKay and Jamie
Swift, provides a critical perspective on both
Canada's growing effort to portray itself as a
militaristic Warrior Nation and its exploitation of
history in achieving this end.
Taking examples from the Boer War, the First and
Second World Wars, and Canada's UN peacekeeping
missions in Africa, Ian McKay and Jamie Swift
consider how Canada's valorization of military
history has thrown totemic Canadian ideals of peace,
tolerance, and reasoned public debate into question.
Replacing these ideals, the authors assert, is a
shift in Canadian political culture toward
authoritarian leadership and permanent political
"It's all about how wars are remembered, not whether
we remember them," co-author Jamie Swift observed.
"Warrior Nation describes the way that government
attempts to manipulate and indeed mould public
opinion to suit its own agenda."
Historian and co-author Ian McKay added that "many
regimes around the world have used the technique of
mobilizing fear and drawing us back to cults of
blood and death, but very few of those regimes were
ever called democracies."
In pages of exhaustive research, Warrior Nation
sheds light on the key players and narratives
essential to understanding both Canada's past and
its current direction. Swashbuckling marauder
William Stairs, the Royal Military College graduate
who helped make the Congo safe for European pillage.
Vimy Ridge veteran and Second World War general
Tommy Burns, leader of the UN's first big
peacekeeping operation, a soldier who would come to
call imperialism "the monster of the age." Governor
General John Buchan, a concentration camp developer
and race theorist who is exalted in the Harper
government's new citizenship guide. And that
uniquely Canadian paradox, Lester Pearson.
Ian McKay is a professor of history at Queen's
University in Kingston, Ontario. His previous books
include Rebels, Reds,
Radicals: Rethinking Canada's Left History, For a
Working-Class Culture in Canada, and the
award-winning Reasoning Otherwise: Leftists and the
People's Enlightenment in Canada, 1890-1920.
Jamie Swift is a winner of the Michener Fellowship
for Public Service Journalism. He has authored
numerous books, from biography and history to
corporate muckraking. His most recent title is
Persistent Poverty: Voices
From the Margins, co-authored with Brice
Balmer and Mira Dineen.
Since 1977 Between the Lines Books has published
books that embrace critical perspectives on culture,
economics, and society
For further information:
Matthew Adams, Between the Lines Books |
Canada can do
more to protect its children from poverty, new
Toronto, May 29, 2012 /CNW/
- A new report released by UNICEF today
comparing child poverty in 35 industrialized
countries reveals Canada could be doing more to
protect its children.
"The face of poverty in Canada is a child's face,"
says UNICEF Canada's Executive Director David
Morley. "This is unacceptable. It is clearly time
for Canada to make children a priority when planning
budgets and spending our nation's resources, even in
tough economic times."
Report Card 10 from UNICEF's Research Office reveals
Canada's child poverty rate is higher than Canada's
overall national poverty rate. When comparing this
gap between child poverty and overall poverty,
Canada ranks 18th of the 35 countries measured. Ten
of the 35 countries have lower child poverty rates
than overall poverty rates, including the Nordic
countries, Japan and Australia. Romania is at the
bottom of the list with a child poverty rate of 26
per cent - a third higher than its national rate.
When examining the percentage of children living in
poverty, Canada is again in the bottom third, with
13 per cent of children living in poverty ranking
Canada 24th of 35 countries. Iceland tops the list
with the lowest rate of child poverty just below 5
per cent; Romania has the highest.
According to today's Report Card, approximately 30
million children in 35 industrialized countries are
growing up poor. It emphasizes child poverty is not
inevitable in these countries but significantly
affected by government policy. Countries with
similar levels of economic development and per
capita income have different child poverty rates.
For example, Canada's taxes and transfers are more
successful at lowering child poverty rate compared
to the United States but they are not as successful
as the Nordic countries, Ireland or Australia. In
general, countries get the child poverty rate they
"Millions of children are going without in countries
that have the resources to protect them, including
children here in Canada," says Morley.
How Canada can do better
There are a number of ways Canada can better
prioritize children. Child benefits and tax credits
could be improved given Canada's moderate level of
spending on children compared to similar countries.
Canada should also establish a national poverty
reduction strategy, including a focus on children.
Since 2002, twelve provinces and territories have
set strategies or committed to provincial poverty
reduction plans. Quebec was one of the first to set
targets and the results have been positive for
Canada also lacks an official definition of poverty,
making it difficult to understand the severity of
the situation, monitor the well-being of children
and guide effective investments.
Today's Report Card also demonstrates how two
poverty measurements, one based on income and one a
new Child Deprivation Index which provides a list of
14 basic items essential to a child's well-being,
can provide more information to better guide policy
www.unicef.ca to read UNICEF's Report Card 10
and see info graphics comparing child poverty rates
in Canada and other industrialized countries around
the world. Join the conversation on twitter by
following UNICEF Canada (@UNICEFLive)
using #ReportCard10 #ChildPoverty
UNICEF's Report Card
In keeping with UNICEF's
mandate to advocate for children in every country,
UNICEF's Report Card series focuses on the
well-being of children in industrialized countries.
Each Report Card includes a league table ranking the
countries of the OECD according to their record on
the subject under discussion. The Report Cards are
designed to appeal to a wide audience while
maintaining academic rigour.
UNICEF is the world's leading child-focused
humanitarian and development agency. Through
innovative programs and advocacy work, UNICEF saves
children's lives and secure their rights in
virtually every country. UNICEF's global reach,
unparalleled influence on policymakers, and diverse
partnerships make it an instrumental force in
shaping a world in which no child dies of a
preventable cause. UNICEF is entirely supported by
voluntary donations and helps all children,
regardless of race, religion or politics. For more
information about UNICEF, please visit
Asians face workplace harassment, says study
May 8, 2012
When they don't conform
to common racial stereotypes, such as being
non-dominant, even people of East Asian descent are
"unwelcome and unwanted by their co-workers," says a
new paper from the University of Toronto's Rotman
They have been stereotyped as a "model minority."
But when they don't conform to common racial
stereotypes, such as being non-dominant, even people
of East Asian descent are "unwelcome and unwanted by
their co-workers," says a new paper from the
University of Toronto's Rotman School of Management.
The study shows there is a difference between
"descriptive" racial stereotypes – what people
believe to be true about members of a particular
group – and "prescriptive"
racial stereotypes – how people want members of
a particular group to behave.
One experiment showed that participants held
descriptive stereotypes of East Asians as being
competent, cold, and non-dominant.
A second showed that the most valued expectation of
East Asians was that they "stay in their place," and
don't take a dominating role. A third experiment
showed that participants preferred a white co-worker
over an East Asian co-worker if that co-worker had a
"In general, people don't want dominant co-workers
but they really don't want to work with a dominant
East-Asian co-worker," says Jennifer Berdahl, a
Rotman professor who co-authored the study with
graduate student Ji-A Min, after conducting similar
research into workplace gender stereotyping.
A fourth study, found that East Asians who exhibited
a dominant personality at work reported higher
levels of harassment than other workers. Those who
"stayed in their place" did not.
Although stereotypes support the interests of the
group that dominates in a society, Prof. Berdahl
says, "Everyone buys into them to some extent … even
the group that they hurt." That may explain why the
study's East Asian participants also seemed to hold
the same limiting stereotypes about other East
"If you stay in your place – as a woman or as a
minority – the workplace may not be actively hostile
to you," says Prof. Berdahl. "But that in itself is
a form of social coercion."
"The first step to remedying the bamboo ceiling
created by these prescriptive stereotypes of is to
be aware of them and how they can lead to backlash
against those who defy them," says Prof. Berdahl.
"Holding East Asians to different standards than
whites – reacting negatively to them when they
engage in leadership behaviors – holds them, and all
those who might benefit from their leadership,
The study is forthcoming in an issue of Cultural
Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology.
Provided by University of Toronto, Rotman
School of Management
Gallery, Museum and Archives (PAMA) to open art
gallery, Sept. 30
By Ashley Goodfellow | May 31, 2012
not just a renovated building— the new Peel Art
Gallery is a spectacularly revamped space boasting
the unique and successful marriage of modern, urban
and heritage elements.
And, you’ll get to see all 10,000 square feet of the
impressive facility yourself, starting Sept. 30.
The Peel Art Gallery, Museum and Archives (PAMA)
announced May 30 that the official opening of the
Art Gallery— phase one of three— is scheduled for
the last Sunday in September. The three-level Art
Gallery building (which was originally a 1950s Hydro
building, and later a building housing staff from
the Region of Peel), is now a light and airy space
outfitted with oversized windows, a sleek and modern
design, and state-of-the-art fixtures.
The incorporation of so much glass and windows, is a
testament to Brampton’s rich history with
greenhouses, said Claire Loughheed, manager of PAMA,
and the wooden beams are reflective of the area’s
“It is very much a building of contemporary design
and yet it speaks to the anecdotes of the
community,” she said.
At every turn, there is another impressive space to
It boasts several exhibition spaces, including 2,070
sq. ft. of permanent collection space; 2,580 sq. ft.
of temporary collection space; a community gallery
of 2,000 sq. ft.; art storage space of 2,500 sq. ft.
(able to house the facility’s collection of more
than 4,500 pieces of art); and a 542 sq. ft. studio
With triple the exhibition space, the Art Gallery
will be able to feature works such as that of Lyn
Carter— an artist who creates fabric-covered organic
forms of tremendous proportions. Carter’s work will
be featured in the Art Gallery for the grand
The new facility also features an impressive lobby
and greeting area, as well as a spacious
reception/cafe area with amazing views from the
third floor— quarters for patrons to relax, and
perhaps enjoy a snack.
The building will also link to the Museum, Archives
and Jailhouse through an underground passage with
skylights (also opening as part of phase one), or
through the renovated courtyard— an inviting outdoor
Architects and designers of the $13-million
restoration and construction project that began in
2010 say they are thrilled with the way the building
has come together. Paul Gagné, an architect with
Goldsmith Borgal & Company Ltd. Architects, said the
completed renovations accurately reflect the initial
“It is remarkably close to the renderings,” he told
Loughheed said PAMA was designed with the community
in mind. Inside, the Art Gallery has space for the
community to learn and connect with art, including a
dry studio, a wet studio and an area where free
family programming will take place. The new space
will work with families, community groups and
In addition to Carter’s exhibit, Cover, the phase
one opening will feature Passages: a photo-based
exhibition featuring artists include Sara Angelucci,
Greg Staats, William Eakin, Donald Rance and Vid
Ingelevics, who have created a special installation
based on images from the Region of Peel Archives’
outstanding collection of mid-20th century
Phase two of the opening, which happens Nov. 17 and
18, will include the Museum and Archives. The full
site, said Loughheed, will be completely operational
on Feb. 18, 2013, in time for Family Day.
Each of the three openings will feature free
programs and events for all to enjoy.
“We are thrilled to have the opening dates
finalized,” said Loughheed. “Now it’s our job to
make PAMA even more exciting and powerful and
When it re-opens, PAMA will be one of only three
places in Canada that combines an art gallery,
museum and archive facility under one roof. This
unified space will provide an opportunity to
showcase Peel’s history in a connected and
integrated way. Programs geared towards every member
of the family are currently being developed and will
be offered throughout the many spaces within PAMA.
For more, visit
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